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Charlotte Ernst, Peter Skov Jensen, Christian Aalkjaer, Toke Bek; Differential Effects of Intra- and Extravascular ATP on the Diameter of Porcine Vessels at Different Branching Levels Ex Vivo. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2020;61(12):8. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.61.12.8.
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Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is involved in the diameter regulation of retinal vessels. The compound has been shown to induce both constriction and dilatation, but the detailed mechanisms underlying these effects and the site of action of the compound are not known in detail. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the vasoactive effects of ATP on retinal vessels depend on intra- and extravascular application, and to study whether the effects differ at different vascular branching levels.
Diameter changes in arterioles, pre-capillary arterioles, and capillaries were studied in perfused porcine hemiretinas (n = 48) ex vivo after intra- and extravascular application of the nondegradable ATP analogue ATP-γ-S or ATP in the presence or not of antagonists to the CD73/ecto-5′-nucleotidase (AOPCP), the P2-purinergic receptor (PPADS), the A3-adenosine receptor (MRS1523), and the synthesis of cyclooxygenase products (ibuprofen).
Intravascular ATP-induced constriction and extravascular ATP-induced dilatation of retinal arterioles, pre-capillary arterioles and capillaries, and dilatation was inhibited by ibuprofen. Both constriction and dilatation of arterioles were inhibited by antagonizing ATP degradation. Furthermore, constriction at all three branching levels was antagonized by blocking the A3 purinoceptor, whereas constriction in arterioles and pre-capillary arterioles was antagonized by blocking the P2 purinoceptor.
ATP affects the diameter of retinal arterioles, pre-capillary arterioles, and capillaries through different pathways, and the effects depend on whether the compound is administered intravascularly or extravascularly. This may form the basis for selective interventions on retinal vascular disease with differential involvement of vessels at different branching levels.
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