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Jianyong Wang, Xing Xin, Wenliang Luo, Ruojie Wang, Xinyi Wang, Shuting Si, Minjia Mo, Bule Shao, Shuojia Wang, Yu Shen, Xi Chen, Yunxian Yu; Anemia and Diabetic Kidney Disease Had Joint Effect on Diabetic Retinopathy Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2020;61(14):25. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.61.14.25.
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Whether the association between diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is leveraged by anemia remains unclear. This study is to evaluate the joint effect of DKD and anemia on DR.
Data were collected from electronic medical records of 1389 patients with T2DM in the Yiwu Central Hospital of Zhejiang Province from 2018 to 2019. Based on retinal examination findings, patients were classified as without diabetic retinopathy (non-DR), non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Odds ratio (OR) from multinomial logistic regression models adjusting for potential risk factors of DR were used to evaluate associations of DKD, renal function measures, and anemia with risk of NPDR and PDR. Path analysis was performed to help understand the association of DKD and hemoglobin (Hb) with DR.
The study included 901 patients with non-DR, 367 patients with NPDR and 121 patients with PDR. Both high DKD risk and abnormal renal function measures were significantly associated with PDR. Anemia was associated with increased risk of NPDR (OR = 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18–2.58) and PDR (OR = 3.71, 95% CI = 2.23–6.18). DKD severity and anemia had joint effect on NPDR (OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.32–3.96) and PDR (OR = 11.31, 95% CI = 5.95–21.51). These associations were supported by path analysis.
DKD severity, abnormal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) were associated with increased risk of DR in patients with T2DM, and anemia had joint effect on these associations. Improving Hb level may decrease the risk of DR in patients with T2DM.
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