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Yoshihiko Tsukamoto, Kyoko Iseki, Naoko Omi; Helical Fasciculation of Bipolar and Horizontal Cell Neurites for Wiring With Photoreceptors in Macaque and Mouse Retinas. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2021;62(1):31. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.62.1.31.
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The three-dimensional configurations of rod and cone bipolar cell (BC) dendrites and horizontal cell (HC) processes outside rod and cone synaptic terminals have not been fully elucidated. We reveal how these neurites are mutually arranged to coordinate formation and maintenance of the postsynaptic complex of ribbon synapses in mouse and monkey retinas.
Serial section transmission electron microscopy was utilized to reconstruct BC and HC neurites in macaque monkey and mouse, including metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6)-knockout mice.
Starting from sporadically distributed branching points, rod BC and HC neurites (B and H, respectively) took specific paths to rod spherules by gradually adjusting their mutual positions, which resulted in a closed alternating pattern of H‒B‒H‒B neurites at the rod spherule aperture. This order corresponded to the array of elements constituting the postsynaptic complex of ribbon synapses. We identified novel helical coils of HC processes surrounding the rod BC dendrite in both mouse and macaque retinas, and these structures occurred more frequently in mGluR6-knockout than wild-type mouse retinas. Horizontal cell processes also formed hook-like protrusions that encircled cone BC and HC neurites below the cone pedicles in the macaque retina.
Bipolar and horizontal cell neurites take specific paths to adjust their mutual positions at the rod spherule aperture. Some HC processes are helically coiled around rod BC dendrites or form hook-like protrusions around cone BC dendrites and HC processes. Loss of mGluR6 signaling may be one factor promoting unbalanced neurite growth and compensatory neurite coiling.
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