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Ying Wang, Xiao-Wen Hou, Gang Liang, Chen-Wei Pan; Metabolomics in Glaucoma: A Systematic Review. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2021;62(6):9. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.62.6.9.
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Glaucoma remains a poorly understood disease, and identifying biomarkers for early diagnosis is critical to reducing the risk of glaucoma-related visual impairment and blindness. The aim of this review is to provide current metabolic profiles for glaucoma through a summary and analysis of reported metabolites associated with glaucoma.
We searched PubMed and Web of Science for metabolomics studies of humans on glaucoma published before November 11, 2020. Studies were included if they assessed the biomarkers of any types of glaucoma and performed mass spectrometry-based or nuclear magnetic resonance–based metabolomics approach. Pathway enrichment analysis and topology analysis were performed to generate a global view of metabolic signatures related to glaucoma using the MetaboAnalyst 3.0.
In total, 18 articles were included in this review, among which 13 studies were focused on open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Seventeen metabolites related to OAG were repeatedly identified, including seven amino acids (arginine, glycine, alanine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine), two phosphatidylcholine (PC aa C34:2, PC aa C36:4), three complements (acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, butyrylcarnitine), carnitine, glutamine, hypoxanthine, spermine, and spermidine. The pathway analysis implied a major role of amino metabolism in OAG pathophysiology and revealed the metabolic characteristics between different biological samples.
In this review, we summarize existing metabolomic studies related to glaucoma biomarker identification and point out a series of metabolic disorders in OAG patients, providing information on the molecular mechanism changes in glaucoma. Additional studies are needed to validate existing findings, and future research will need to explore the potential overlap between different biological fluids.
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