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Jacqueline J. O. N. van den Bosch, Vincenzo Pennisi, Azzurra Invernizzi, Kaweh Mansouri, Robert N. Weinreb, Hagen Thieme, Michael B. Hoffmann, Lars Choritz; Implanted Microsensor Continuous IOP Telemetry Suggests Gaze and Eyelid Closure Effects on IOP—A Preliminary Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2021;62(6):8. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.62.6.8.
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To explore the effect of gaze direction and eyelid closure on intraocular pressure (IOP).
Eleven patients with primary open-angle glaucoma previously implanted with a telemetric IOP sensor were instructed to view eight equally-spaced fixation targets each at three eccentricities (10°, 20°, and 25°). Nine patients also performed eyelid closure. IOP was recorded via an external antenna placed around the study eye. Differences of mean IOP between consecutive gaze positions were calculated. Furthermore, the effect of eyelid closure on gaze-dependent IOP was assessed.
The maximum IOP increase was observed at 25° superior gaze (mean ± SD: 4.4 ± 4.9 mm Hg) and maximum decrease at 25° inferonasal gaze (−1.6 ± 0.8 mm Hg). There was a significant interaction between gaze direction and eccentricity (P = 0.003). Post-hoc tests confirmed significant decreases inferonasally for all eccentricities (mean ± SEM: 10°: −0.7 ± 0.2, P = 0.007; 20°: −1.1 ± 0.2, P = 0.006; and 25°: −1.6 ± 0.2, P = 0.006). Eight of 11 eyes showed significant IOP differences between superior and inferonasal gaze at 25°. IOP decreased during eyelid closure, which was significantly lower than downgaze at 25° (mean ± SEM: −2.1 ± 0.3 mm Hg vs. −0.7 ± 0.2 mm Hg, P = 0.014).
Our data suggest that IOP varies reproducibly with gaze direction, albeit with patient variability. IOP generally increased in upgaze but decreased in inferonasal gaze and on eyelid closure. Future studies should investigate the patient variability and IOP dynamics.
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