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Kai Yuan Tey, Qiu Ying Wong, Yee Shan Dan, Andrew S. H. Tsai, Daniel S. W. Ting, Marcus Ang, Gemmy Chiu Ming Cheung, Shu Yen Lee, Tien Yin Wong, Quan V. Hoang, Chee Wai Wong; Association of Aberrant Posterior Vitreous Detachment and Pathologic Tractional Forces With Myopic Macular Degeneration. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2021;62(7):7. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.62.7.7.
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The purpose of this study was to assess whether the tractional elements of pathologic myopia (PM; e.g. myopic traction maculopathy [MTM], posterior staphyloma [PS], and aberrant posterior vitreous detachment [PVD]) are associated with myopic macular degeneration (MMD) independent of age and axial length, among highly myopic (HM) eyes.
One hundred twenty-nine individuals with 239 HM eyes from the Myopic and Pathologic Eyes in Singapore (MyoPES) cohort underwent ocular biometry, fundus photography, swept-source optical coherence tomography, and ocular B-scan ultrasound. Images were analyzed for PVD grade, and presence of MTM, PS, and MMD. The χ² test was done to determine the difference in prevalence of MMD between eyes with and without PVD, PS, and MTM. Multivariate probit regression analyses were performed to ascertain the relationship between the potential predictors (PVD, PS, and MTM) and outcome variable (MMD), after accounting for possible confounders (e.g. age and axial length). Marginal effects were reported.
Controlling for potential confounders, eyes with MTM have a 29.92 percentage point higher likelihood of having MMD (P = 0.003), and eyes with PS have a 25.72 percentage point higher likelihood of having MMD (P = 0.002). The likelihood of MMD increases by 10.61 percentage points per 1 mm increase in axial length (P < 0.001). Subanalysis revealed that eyes with incomplete PVD have a 22.54 percentage point higher likelihood of having MMD than eyes with early PVD (P = 0.04).
Our study demonstrated an association between tractional (MTM, PS, and persistently incomplete PVD) and degenerative elements of PM independent of age and axial length. These data provide further insights into the pathogenesis of MMD.
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