June 2021
Volume 62, Issue 8
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2021
Measuring S, M, and L cone sensitivities in the living human eye using phase-sensitive AO-OCT
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Marcel Bernucci
    School of Optometry, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, Indiana, United States
  • Kazuhiro Kurokawa
    School of Optometry, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, Indiana, United States
  • Yan Liu
    School of Optometry, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, Indiana, United States
  • Furu Zhang
    Center for Devices and Radiological Health, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States
  • James Alan Crowell
    School of Optometry, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, Indiana, United States
  • Donald Thomas Miller
    School of Optometry, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, Indiana, United States
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Marcel Bernucci, None; Kazuhiro Kurokawa, Indiana University (P); Yan Liu, None; Furu Zhang, None; James Crowell, None; Donald Miller, Indiana University (P)
  • Footnotes
    Support  NIH Grant EY018339 , NIH Grant EY029808
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2021, Vol.62, 52. doi:
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      Marcel Bernucci, Kazuhiro Kurokawa, Yan Liu, Furu Zhang, James Alan Crowell, Donald Thomas Miller; Measuring S, M, and L cone sensitivities in the living human eye using phase-sensitive AO-OCT. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2021;62(8):52.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose : Human color vision is based on the spectral sensitivities of S, M, and L cone photoreceptors, yet methods to objectively measure cone sensitivity as a function of wavelength over the entire visible light spectrum in the living human eye still do not exist. Here, we demonstrate a new, high resolution method based on phase-sensitive adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) for measuring spectral sensitivities of the three different cone types.

Methods : AO-OCT volumes of 1°×0.8° at 3.8° temporal retina were acquired over 5 s for two color normal subjects. At 2.5 s, a 5 ms flash of 450 nm, 520 nm or 635 nm light with variable strength was delivered to the retina. The resulting temporal changes in the cone outer segment optical path length (ΔOPL) were extracted from the volume images and used to determine the spectral type [1] and sensitivity of each cone. Sensitivity was determined by fitting the cones’ average peak response at each wavelength to a power function of stimulus photon strength after compensating for lenticular and macular absorption. We then separately scaled the measured sensitivity function for each cone type to best align with widely accepted psychophysical measurements [2]. In both subjects, spectral sensitivity 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for S, M, and L cone types at the three stimulus wavelengths by computing the average and standard deviation values of S, M and L cone average peak response per stimulus flash strength and using the resulting probability distributions to estimate the CIs via a Monte Carlo simulation.

Results : For both subjects, CI were <6.0e-3 at all wavelengths and for all cone types (except we had insufficient response to calculate a CI for S cones at 635 nm). After aligning our data to the psychophysical results, the least-squares error across 450 nm, 520 nm, and 635 nm wavelengths for S, M, and L cones, respectively, was [5.50e-4, 2.62e-4, 2.4e-3] for Subject 1, and [1.04e-4, 3.4e-2, 1.23e-4] for Subject 2.

Conclusions : We demonstrate the first objective measurements of cone spectral sensitivities using phase-sensitive AO-OCT. Excellent agreement is obtained with Stockman & Sharpe’s psychophysical measurements.
[1] Zhang, et al. PNAS 116.16 (2019): 7951-6.
[2] Stockman, A., & Sharpe, L. T. (2000). Vision Res. 40, 1711-1737.

This is a 2021 ARVO Annual Meeting abstract.

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