June 2021
Volume 62, Issue 8
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2021
Validity of Actiwatch and Clouclip Measures of Light Exposure
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Colleen Marie Howell
    Optometry and Vision Science Research Group, Ulster University, Coleraine, Derry, United Kingdom
    Sport and Exercise Sciences Research Group, Ulster University, Coleraine, Derry, United Kingdom
  • Sara J McCullough
    Optometry and Vision Science Research Group, Ulster University, Coleraine, Derry, United Kingdom
  • Lesley A Doyle
    Optometry and Vision Science Research Group, Ulster University, Coleraine, Derry, United Kingdom
  • Marie Murphy
    Sport and Exercise Sciences Research Group, Ulster University, Coleraine, Derry, United Kingdom
  • Kathryn J Saunders
    Optometry and Vision Science Research Group, Ulster University, Coleraine, Derry, United Kingdom
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Colleen Howell, None; Sara McCullough, None; Lesley Doyle, None; Marie Murphy, None; Kathryn Saunders, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2021, Vol.62, 1371. doi:
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    • Get Citation

      Colleen Marie Howell, Sara J McCullough, Lesley A Doyle, Marie Murphy, Kathryn J Saunders; Validity of Actiwatch and Clouclip Measures of Light Exposure. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2021;62(8):1371.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose : To compare measures of light exposure obtained with Actiwatch2 (AW) and Clouclip (CC) to ‘gold standard’ photometer (PHO) measures and evaluate the wearable devices’ ability to categorise light into different levels of illumination.

Methods : Illumination was assessed by AW, CC and PHO in a range of lighting conditions and categorised (by PHO) as described in Table 1. Regression plots and Bland/Altman analyses evaluated the relationship between PHO output and the wearable devices. The ability of AW and CC to successfully categorise light into the four categories was examined.

Results : A strong linear relationship was found between light exposure measured by PHO and both AW (r=0.999, p<0.001) and CC (r=0.989, p<0.001). However, compared to PHO, both wearable devices underestimated light exposure. The disparity increased with increasing illumination and was greater for AW than CC. Mean differences and limits of agreement in light exposure were; AW vs PHO 430.92 lux (-1397.82 to 2259.66) and CC vs PHO 79.35 lux (-327.98 to 486.68), respectively. Categorisation of illumination level (SCO/MES/IN/OUT) by CC was more accurate than by AW (Figure 1). Adjusted criteria for categorisation of illumination levels by wearables were derived from regression equations (Figure 2).

Conclusions : These data illustrate that both CC and AW devices underestimate light exposure in comparison to ‘gold standard’ PHO measures, with increasing disparity at higher light levels, especially for AW. For researchers interested in categorising exposure into different levels of illumination, CC more accurately classifies illumination levels than AW in illuminations above SCO levels. Adjusted criteria should be applied to AW and CC data to more closely align with PHO outputs.

This is a 2021 ARVO Annual Meeting abstract.

 

Figure 1. Light exposure measures PHO vs CC and PHO vs AW. Purple and green dashes depict the scotopic and mesopic cut-offs (a). Orange dashes depict the outdoor photopic cut-off (b).

Figure 1. Light exposure measures PHO vs CC and PHO vs AW. Purple and green dashes depict the scotopic and mesopic cut-offs (a). Orange dashes depict the outdoor photopic cut-off (b).

 

Figure 2. Adjusted category cut-offs derived by regression equations.

Figure 2. Adjusted category cut-offs derived by regression equations.

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