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Alyssa Grant, Gareth Leung, Marie-Josée Aubin, Marie-Jeanne Kergoat, Gisèle Li, Ellen E. Freeman; Fine Particulate Matter and Age-Related Eye Disease: The Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2021;62(10):7. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.62.10.7.
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To determine the relationship between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ocular outcomes such as visual impairment and age-related eye disease.
Baseline data were used from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging. The Comprehensive Cohort consisted of 30,097 adults ages 45 to 85 years. Annual mean PM2.5 levels (µg/m3) for each participant's postal code were estimated from satellite data. Ozone, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide levels were also estimated. Binocular presenting visual acuity was measured using a visual acuity chart. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured in millimeters of mercury using the Reichart Ocular Response Analyzer. Participants were asked about a diagnosis of glaucoma, macular degeneration, or cataract. Logistic and linear regression models were used.
The overall mean PM2.5 level was 6.5 µg/m3 (SD = 1.8). In the single pollutant models, increased PM2.5 levels (per interquartile range) were associated with visual impairment (odds ratio [OR] = 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–1.24), glaucoma (OR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.01–1.29), and visually impairing age-related macular degeneration (OR = 1.52; 95% CI, 1.10–2.09) after adjustment for sociodemographics and disease. PM2.5 had a borderline adjusted association with cataract (OR = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.99–1.14). In the multi-pollutant models, increased PM2.5 was associated with glaucoma and IOP only after adjustment for sociodemographics and disease (OR = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.05–1.46 and β = 0.24; 95% CI, 0.12–0.37).
Increased PM2.5 is associated with glaucoma and IOP. These associations should be confirmed using longitudinal data and potential mechanisms should be explored. If confirmed, this work may have relevance for revision of World Health Organization thresholds to protect human health.
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