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Shalem Raj Padakandla, Taraprasad Das, Gumpili Sai Prashanthi, Kiran Kumar Angadi, S. Sreenivasa Reddy, G. Bhanuprakash Reddy, Sisinthy Shivaji; Dysbiosis in the Gut Microbiome in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Rats and Follow-Up During Retinal Changes. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2021;62(10):31. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.62.10.31.
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To analyze the gut bacterial microbiome of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and rats with retinal changes.
Induction of diabetes was confirmed by an increase in blood sugar (>150 mg/dL), and the progression of diabetes with retinal changes was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry of retinal sections. Microbiomes were generated using fecal DNA, and the V3–V4 amplicons were sequenced and analyzed by QIIME and R.
Dysbiosis in the gut microbiome of diabetic rats and diabetic rats with retinal changes was observed at the phylum and genus levels compared with the control rats. Heat-map analysis based on the differentially abundant genera indicated that the microbiomes of controls and diabetic rats separated into two distinct clusters. The majority of the microbiomes in diabetic rats with retinal changes also formed a distinct cluster from the control rats. β-diversity analysis separated the microbiome of control rats from the microbiome of diabetic rats and diabetic rats with retinal changes, but the microbiomes of diabetic rats and diabetic rats with retinal changes showed an overlap. Functional analysis indicated that the enhanced inflammation in diabetic rats showing retinal changes could be ascribed to a decrease in anti-inflammatory bacteria and an increase in pathogenic and proinflammatory bacteria.
This study showed that the gut bacterial microbiome in diabetic rats with retinal changes was different compared with control rats. The results could help develop novel therapeutics for diabetics and diabetic individuals with retinal changes.
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