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Qun Liu, Zhi-Yi Xu, Xiao-Li Wang, Xiao-Mei Huang, Wen-Lin Zheng, Mei-Jun Li, Fan Xiao, Pei-Wen Ouyang, Xiao-Hua Yang, Yu-Hong Cui, Hong-Wei Pan; Changes in Conjunctival Microbiota Associated With HIV Infection and Antiretroviral Therapy. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2021;62(12):1. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.62.12.1.
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HIV infection is associated with a variety of ocular surface diseases. Understanding the difference of the ocular microbiota between HIV-infected and healthy individuals as well as the influence of antiretroviral therapy will help to investigate the pathogenesis of these conditions.
A cross-sectional study was conducted on subjects including HIV-negative individuals, untreated HIV-infected individuals, and HIV-infected individuals with antiretroviral therapy. Conjunctival microbiota was assessed by bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing of the samples obtained from the conjunctival swab.
The microbial richness in ocular surface was similar in HIV-negative, untreated HIV-positive, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) subjects. The bacterial compositions were similar in the two HIV infection groups but were significantly different from the HIV-negative group. HAART changed the beta diversity of bacterial community as determined by Shannon index. CD4+ T cell count had no significant influence on the diversity of ocular microbiota in HIV-infected individuals.
The data revealed the compositional and structural difference in conjunctival microbial community in subjects with and without HIV infection, indicating that HIV infection or its treatment, may contribute to ocular surface dysbiosis.
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