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Tian Tian, Leilei Zou, Shu Wang, Rui Liu, Hong Liu; The Role of Dopamine in Emmetropization Modulated by Wavelength and Temporal Frequency in Guinea Pigs. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2021;62(12):20. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.62.12.20.
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Wavelength and temporal frequency have been found to influence refractive development. This study investigated whether retinal dopamine (DA) plays a role in these processes.
Guinea pigs were randomly divided into nine groups that received different lighting conditions for 4 weeks, as follows: white, green, or blue light at 0, 0.5, or 20.0 Hz. Refractions and axial lengths were measured using streak retinoscopy and A-scan ultrasound imaging. DA and its metabolites were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection.
At 0 Hz, green and blue light produced myopic and hyperopic shifts compared with that of white light. At 0.5 Hz, no significant changes were observed compared with those of green or blue light at 0 Hz, whereas white light at 0.5 Hz induced a myopic shift compared with white light at 0 or 20 Hz. At 20 Hz, green and blue light acted like white light. Among all levels of DA and its metabolites, only vitreous 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels and retinal DOPAC/DA ratios were dependent on wavelength, frequency, and their interaction. Specifically, retinal DOPAC/DA ratios were positively correlated with refractions in white and green light conditions. However, blue light (0, 0.5, and 20.0 Hz) produced hyperopic shifts but decreased vitreous DOPAC levels and retinal DOPAC/DA ratios.
The retinal DOPAC/DA ratio, indicating the metabolic efficiency of DA, is correlated with ocular growth. It may underlie myopic shifts from light exposure with a long wavelength and low temporal frequency. However, different biochemical pathways may contribute to the hyperopic shifts from short wavelength light.
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