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Hosein Hoseini-Yazdi, Scott A. Read, David Alonso-Caneiro, Michael J. Collins; Retinal OFF-Pathway Overstimulation Leads to Greater Accommodation-Induced Choroidal Thinning. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2021;62(13):5. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.62.13.5.
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To examine the interactions between accommodation and overstimulation of the retinal ON- and OFF-pathways, and their association with changes in choroidal thickness (ChT) and vascularity.
Optical coherence tomography imaging of the choroid of twenty young adults (ages 25 ± 5 years) was performed before and after a series of 30-minute-long viewing tasks, including reading a bright text on dark background (ON-pathway overstimulation) and dark text on bright background (OFF-pathway overstimulation), and a control task of viewing a movie with unbiased ON-/OFF-pathway activation. The viewing tasks were performed with relaxed, and 5 diopter (D) accommodation (induced by soft contact lenses) demands. Both reading texts were matched for the mean luminance (35 cd/m2), luminance contrast (87%), and letter size (approximately 11.8 arc minutes). The change in ChT from baseline associated with contrast polarity and accommodation was examined using linear mixed model analysis.
The subfoveal ChT decreased significantly by −7 ± 1 µm with 5 D accommodation compared with relaxed accommodation (−3 ± 1 µm; P < 0.001), and by −9 ± 1 µm with OFF-pathway compared with ON-pathway overstimulation (−4 ± 1 µm; P = 0.002) and the control condition (−2 ± 1 µm; P < 0.001). Overstimulation of the OFF-pathway, but not the ON-pathway, resulted in a significantly greater choroidal thinning compared with the control condition, both at relaxed (−7 ± 1 µm; P = 0.003) and 5 D (−11 ± 1 µm; P = 0.005) accommodation levels. Similar changes were also observed for macular total, stromal, and luminal ChT.
Retinal OFF-pathway stimulation enhanced the choroidal thinning associated with accommodation, thereby providing a potential mechanism that involves accommodation and the retinal OFF-signaling pathway, linking near work and myopia.
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