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Xuan Zhou, Sen Zhang, Fan Yang, Yaozhen Yang, Qin Huang, Chengjie Huang, Jia Qu, Xiangtian Zhou; Decreased Choroidal Blood Perfusion Induces Myopia in Guinea Pigs. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2021;62(15):30. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.62.15.30.
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The development of myopia in guinea pigs can be inhibited by attenuating scleral hypoxia by increasing choroidal blood perfusion (ChBP). In this study, we reduced ChBP through surgical and pharmacological methods to determine the effect on myopia development. We also determined whether ChBP was reduced by quinpirole, a drug that enhances form-deprivation myopia (FDM).
ChBP was reduced in the right eyes of guinea pigs via transection of the temporal ciliary arteries or daily injections of phenylephrine into the inferior peribulbar space for one week during normal ocular growth. Other guinea pigs were subjected to two weeks of monocular FDM—with facemasks, along with daily injections of quinpirole, a dopamine D2 receptor agonist, to enhance the FDM. Changes in refraction, axial length, ChBP, and choroidal thickness (ChT) were measured in both treated and fellow eyes of the treatment and control groups. Scleral hypoxia labeling with pimonidazole adducts and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) protein were also measured.
Surgical and pharmacological reduction of ChBP induced myopia development in the treated eyes. These treatments rendered the scleral hypoxia and increased scleral α-SMA expression. Furthermore, quinpirole injections, which increased the magnitude of myopia, augmented the FDM-associated reductions in ChBP and ChT and increased the levels of scleral hypoxia and α-SMA protein.
Decreased ChBP in guinea pigs leads to scleral hypoxia and scleral myofibroblast transdifferentiation with increased α-SMA expression, ultimately resulting in myopia development. In future clinical trials, ChBP reduction can serve as a potential biomarker for early detection of myopia development.
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