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Nathan Ingold, Adrian I. Campos, Xikun Han, Jue-Sheng Ong, Puya Gharahkhani, David A. Mackey, Miguel E. Rentería, Matthew H. Law, Stuart MacGregor; Is Genetic Risk for Sleep Apnea Causally Linked With Glaucoma Susceptibility?. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2022;63(1):25. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.63.1.25.
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Observational studies have suggested that individuals with pre-existing sleep apnea (SA) have up to double the risk of developing glaucoma than individuals without SA. Understanding risk factors for glaucoma is important to assist with well-structured screening, early intervention, and efficient allocation of specialist consultation. The objective of this study is therefore to use genetic data to determine whether SA is a causal risk factor for glaucoma.
Two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses were performed to assess the association between genetically predicted SA and glaucoma susceptibility using genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 25,062 SA cases, 313,372 controls derived from 23andMe and summary data from a glaucoma GWAS meta-analysis (20,582 cases, 119,318 controls), including individuals of European descent, mainly from the UK Biobank.
Inverse variance weighted regression of genetic susceptibility for SA on risk of glaucoma revealed no strong evidence for an association between SA and glaucoma (OR = 0.95, 95% confidence intervals = 0.84–1.07), results were consistent across all MR predictors.
We found little genetic evidence supporting a causal association between SA and glaucoma. Our results refute the possibility of a large effect (glaucoma OR > 1.5 per doubling of odds on SA) between SA and glaucoma.
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