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Krunoslav Stingl, Carel Hoyng, Melanie Kempf, Susanne Kohl, Ronja Jung, Giulia Righetti, Laura Kühlewein, Lisa Pohl, Friederike Kortüm, Carina Kelbsch, Barbara Wilhelm, Tobias Peters, Katarina Stingl, on behalf of the SORAPRAZAN consortium; Evaluation of Local Rod and Cone Function in Stargardt Disease. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2022;63(3):6. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.63.3.6.
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In this study, chromatic pupil campimetry (CPC) was used to map local functional degenerative changes of cones and rods in Stargardt disease (STGD1).
19 patients (age 36 ± 8 years; 12 males) with genetically confirmed ABCA4 mutations and a clinical diagnosis of STGD1 and 12 age-matched controls (age 37 ± 11 years; 2 males) underwent scotopic (rod-favoring) and photopic (cone-favoring) CPC. CPC evaluates the local retinal function in the central 30° visual field via analysis of the pupil constriction to local stimuli in a gaze-corrected manner.
Scotopic CPC revealed that the rod function of patients with STGD1 inside the 30° visual field was not impaired when compared with age-matched controls. However, a statistically significant faster pupil response onset time (∼ 40 ms) was observed in the measured area. Photopic CPC showed a significant reduction of the central cone function up to 6°, with a minor, non-significant reduction beyond this eccentricity. The time dynamic of the pupillary response in photopic CPC did not reveal differences between STGD1 and controls.
The functional analysis of the macular region in STGD1 disease indicates reduced central cone function, corresponding to photoreceptor degeneration. In contrast, the rod function in the central area was not affected. Nevertheless, some alteration of the time dynamics in the rod system was observed indicating a complex effect of cone degeneration on the functional performance of the rod system. Our results should be considered when interpreting safety and efficacy in interventional trials of STGD1.
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