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Kallene Summer Moreira Vidal, Diego Decleva, Mirella Telles Salgueiro Barboni, Balàzs Vince Nagy, Paulo Augusto Hidalgo de Menezes, Avinash Aher, Artur Martins Coutinho, Paula Squarzoni, Daniele de Paula Faria, Fabio Luis de Souza Duran, Carlos Alberto Buchpiguel, Jan Kremers, Geraldo Busatto Filho, Dora Fix Ventura; The Association Between Acquired Color Deficiency and PET Imaging of Neurodegeneration in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2022;63(5):20. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.63.5.20.
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To evaluate color vision changes and retinal processing of chromatic and luminance pathways in subjects with Alzheimer disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared with a matched control group and whether such changes are associated with impaired brain glucose metabolism and β-amyloid deposition in the brain.
We evaluated 13 patients with AD (72.4 ± 7.7 years), 23 patients with MCI (72.5 ± 5.5 years), and 18 controls of comparable age (P = 0.44) using Cambridge color test and the heterochromatic flicker ERG (HF-ERG). The Cambridge color test was performed using the trivector protocol to estimate the protan, deutan and tritan color confusion axes. HF-ERG responses were measured at a frequency of 12 Hz, which ERGs reflect chromatic activity, and at 36 Hz, reflecting luminance pathway. A study subsample was performed using neuropsychological assessments and positron emission tomography.
Patients with AD presented higher mean values indicating poorer color discrimination for protan (P = 0.04) and deutan (P = 0.001) axes compared with the controls. Along the tritan axis, both patients with AD and patients with MCI showed decreased color vision (P = 0.001 and P = 0.001) compared with controls. The analyses from the HF-ERG protocol revealed no differences between the groups (P = 0.31 and P = 0.41). Diffuse color vision loss was found in individuals with signs of neurodegeneration (protan P = 0.002, deutan P = 0.003 and tritan P = 0.01), but not in individuals with signs of β-amyloid deposition only (protan P = 0.39, deutan P = 0.48, tritan P = 0.63), regardless of their clinical classification.
Here, patients with AD and patients with MCI present acquired color vision deficiency that may be linked with impaired brain metabolism.
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