June 2022
Volume 63, Issue 7
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2022
Association of lipid-lowering drugs, anti-diabetic drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and levodopa with age-related macular degeneration in Europeans: A meta-analysis of the European Eye Epidemiology (E3) – consortium
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Matthias Marten Marten Mauschitz
    Department of Ophthalmology, Universitatsklinikum Bonn, Bonn, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany
  • Alexander Karl-Georg Schuster
    Department of Ophthalmology, Universitatsmedizin der Johannes Gutenberg-Universitat Mainz, Mainz, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
  • Anthony P Khawaja
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom
  • Mukharram Bikbov
    Ufimskij naucno-issledovatel'skij institut glaznyh boleznej, Ufa, Bashkortostan, Russian Federation
  • Ruth E. Hogg
    Centre for Experimental Medicine, Institute of Clinical Science, Queen's University Belfast, United Kingdom
  • Franziska G Rauscher
    Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE), Leipzig University, Germany
  • Maja Gran Erke
    Ophthalmology, Oslo Universitetssykehus, Oslo, Norway
  • Fotis Topouzis
    Ophthalmology, Aristoteleio Panepistemio Thessalonikes, Thessaloniki, Central Macedonia, Greece
  • Caroline Brandl
    Ophthalmology, Universitatsklinikum Regensburg, Regensburg, Bayern, Germany
  • Catherine Creuzot-Garcher
    Ophthalmology, University Hospital Dijon, France
  • Cecile Delcourt
    Bordeaux Population Health Research Center, France
  • Hans-Werner Hense
    Epidemiology, Universitatsklinikum Munster, Munster, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany
  • Rufino Silva
    Ophthalmology, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Portugal
  • Stefano Piermarocchi
    Neuroscience, University of Padova, Italy
  • Karen Ritchie
    Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale, France
  • Robert P Finger
    Department of Ophthalmology, Universitatsklinikum Bonn, Bonn, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Matthias Marten Mauschitz None; Alexander Schuster None; Anthony Khawaja None; Mukharram Bikbov None; Ruth Hogg None; Franziska Rauscher None; Maja Gran Erke None; Fotis Topouzis None; Caroline Brandl None; Catherine Creuzot-Garcher Allergan, Bayer, Novartis, Horus, Thea, Bausch and Lomb, Roche, Code C (Consultant/Contractor); Cecile Delcourt Allergan, Laboratoire Chauvin, Laboratoires Théa and Novartis, Code C (Consultant/Contractor); Hans-Werner Hense None; Rufino Silva None; Stefano Piermarocchi None; Karen Ritchie None; Robert Finger Bayer C, Novartis C, Roche/Genentech C, Allergan C, Alimera C, Böhringer-Ingelheim C, Santhera C, Ellex C, ProQR C, Opthea C, Oxford Innovation C , Code C (Consultant/Contractor), Novartis F, Zeiss F, Heidelberg Engineering F, CentreVue F, Biogen F, Code F (Financial Support)
  • Footnotes
    Support  NONE
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2022, Vol.63, 378 – F0209. doi:
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      Matthias Marten Marten Mauschitz, Alexander Karl-Georg Schuster, Anthony P Khawaja, Mukharram Bikbov, Ruth E. Hogg, Franziska G Rauscher, Maja Gran Erke, Fotis Topouzis, Caroline Brandl, Catherine Creuzot-Garcher, Cecile Delcourt, Hans-Werner Hense, Rufino Silva, Stefano Piermarocchi, Karen Ritchie, Robert P Finger; Association of lipid-lowering drugs, anti-diabetic drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and levodopa with age-related macular degeneration in Europeans: A meta-analysis of the European Eye Epidemiology (E3) – consortium. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2022;63(7):378 – F0209.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Purpose : Changes in lipid metabolism, chronic inflammation and increased oxidative stress have been discussed as patho-etiogenetic drivers in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Systemic medication, such as lipid-lowering drugs (LLD) and anti-diabetic drugs, affect these pathways and may therefore also play a role in AMD pathogenesis. We aimed to investigate associations of commonly used systemic drugs with AMD prevalence in the European population.

Methods : We included 38,694 adults from 14 population-based studies from the European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium. We performed multivariable logistic regression modelling to examine medication use association with prevalence of AMD as well as late AMD. Analyses were carried out separately by study and results pooled using random effects meta-analysis. We conducted these analyses separately for LLD, anti-diabetic drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), and L-Dopa.

Results : Between studies, mean age ranged from 61.5 ± 7.1 to 82.6 ± 3.8 years and prevalence ranged from 12.1% to 64.5% and from 0.5% to 35.5% for any and any late AMD, respectively. In the meta-analysis of our multivariable models, LLD and anti-diabetic drugs were associated with lower AMD prevalence (OR 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.79 - 0.91 and OR 0.78, 95% CI=0.66 - 0.91). We found no association with late AMD or with any other medication.

Conclusions : Our study shows an association of LLD and anti-diabetic drug use with lower AMD prevalence across multiple European cohorts. Our findings support the importance of metabolic processes in the complex etiology of AMD.

This abstract was presented at the 2022 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Denver, CO, May 1-4, 2022, and virtually.


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