June 2022
Volume 63, Issue 7
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2022
Association of genetics and the adherence to the Mediterranean diet: the risk for age-related macular degeneration
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Patrícia Barreto
    Associacao para a Investigacao Biomedica e Inovacao em Luz e Imagem, Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
    Univ Coimbra, Coimbra Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR), Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra, Portugal, Coimbra, Portugal
  • Claudia Farinha
    Associacao para a Investigacao Biomedica e Inovacao em Luz e Imagem, Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
    opthalmology, Centro Hospitalar e Universitario de Coimbra EPE, Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
  • Rita Coimbra
    Associacao para a Investigacao Biomedica e Inovacao em Luz e Imagem, Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
  • Maria Luz Cachulo
    Associacao para a Investigacao Biomedica e Inovacao em Luz e Imagem, Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
    opthalmology, Centro Hospitalar e Universitario de Coimbra EPE, Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
  • Joana Barbosa Melo
    Cytogenetics and Genomics Laboratory, Clinical Academic Center of Coimbra (CACC), Faculty of Medicine; University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
    Univ Coimbra, Center of Investigation in Environment, Genetics and Oncobiology (CIMAGO), Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra, Portugal
  • Isabel Marques Carreira
    Cytogenetics and Genomics Laboratory, Clinical Academic Center of Coimbra (CACC), Faculty of Medicine; University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
    Univ Coimbra, Center of Investigation in Environment, Genetics and Oncobiology (CIMAGO), Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra, Portugal
  • Carel C B Hoyng
    Radboud Universiteit Donders Institute for Brain Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen, Gelderland, Netherlands
  • Jose G Cunha-Vaz
    Associacao para a Investigacao Biomedica e Inovacao em Luz e Imagem, Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
  • Rufino Silva
    Associacao para a Investigacao Biomedica e Inovacao em Luz e Imagem, Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
    opthalmology, Centro Hospitalar e Universitario de Coimbra EPE, Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Patrícia Barreto None; Claudia Farinha Novartis, Code C (Consultant/Contractor), Bayer, Code C (Consultant/Contractor); Rita Coimbra None; Maria Luz Cachulo None; Joana Melo None; Isabel Carreira None; Carel Hoyng None; Jose Cunha-Vaz Carl Zeiss Meditec, Code C (Consultant/Contractor), Allergan, Code C (Consultant/Contractor), Bayer, Code C (Consultant/Contractor), Ciana Therapeutics, Code C (Consultant/Contractor), Adverum Biotechnologies, Code C (Consultant/Contractor), NovaGo Therapeutics, Code C (Consultant/Contractor), Roche, Code C (Consultant/Contractor), Emerton, Code C (Consultant/Contractor); Rufino Silva Bayer, Code C (Consultant/Contractor), Thea, Code C (Consultant/Contractor), Allimera Sciences, Code C (Consultant/Contractor), Novartis, Code C (Consultant/Contractor), Alcon, Code C (Consultant/Contractor), Allergan, Code C (Consultant/Contractor)
  • Footnotes
    Support  Novartis
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2022, Vol.63, 346 – F0177. doi:
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    • Get Citation

      Patrícia Barreto, Claudia Farinha, Rita Coimbra, Maria Luz Cachulo, Joana Barbosa Melo, Isabel Marques Carreira, Carel C B Hoyng, Jose G Cunha-Vaz, Rufino Silva; Association of genetics and the adherence to the Mediterranean diet: the risk for age-related macular degeneration. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2022;63(7):346 – F0177.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose : To explore the association of the genetic risk score (GRS) for the onset of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) with the adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) – the Coimbra Eye Study (CES).

Methods : 612 subjects (161cases/451 controls) who completed a validated lifestyle and food frequency questionnaire were genotyped in collaboration with the European Eye Epidemiology Consortium. Cases were participants staged 2, 3 or 4 and controls were participants staged 0 (> 60 years-old) or 1 (> 70 years-old), Rotterdam Classification. The adherence to the MedDiet was calculated with mediSCORE (range 0-9) calculated by the sum of nine food group: vegetables, legumes, fruits, cereals, fish, meat, dairy products, fats and alcohol. High adherence to the MedDiet was defined as a mediSCORE equal or >6 (range: 6–9). A GRS was calculated using the 52 single nucleotide polymorphism identified by the International AMD Genomics Consortium. GRS was considered missing if at least one genotype of the major risk variants (CFH rs570618, CFH rs10922109, C2/CFB/SKIV2L rs429608, ARMS2 rs3750846 or C3 rs2230199) was missing. High GRS was classified as greater than or equal to the median. A multivariate logistic regression model with generalized estimating equations for 1216 individual eyes was used to examine the association of AMD, GRS and mediSCORE, controlled by age, sex, smoking and physical exercise.

Results : A higher adherence to the MedDiet was significantly associated with a decreased risk of AMD (OR=0.61, 95%CI 0.39-0.94, p=0.024) and a higher GRS was significantly associated with an increased risk of AMD (OR=2.44, 95%CI 1.66-3.58, p<0.0001). However, no statistical significant interaction was found between the GRS and MedDiet (p=0.284). Despite this, the adherence to the MedDiet was found to be protective for AMD in people with low GRS (OR=0.44, 95%CI 0.21-0.94, p=0.034), while no benefit was observed for people whose GRS was high (OR=0.70, 95%CI 0.40-1.22, p=0.212).

Conclusions : The MedDiet may be protective against the development of AMD, and this protection may depend on the genetic risk. However, it is crucial to carry out further studies on different populations, to clarify the interplay of AMD risk factors, particularly on the MedDiet, in the establishment of the pathophysiology of the disease.

This abstract was presented at the 2022 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Denver, CO, May 1-4, 2022, and virtually.

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