June 2022
Volume 63, Issue 7
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2022
Refractive error in Hong Kong preschool children and its association with near work
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Seen Hang Chan
    School of Optometry, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    Centre for Myopia Research, School of Optometry, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • Kai Yip Choi
    School of Optometry, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    Centre for Myopia Research, School of Optometry, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • Henry Ho-lung Chan
    School of Optometry, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    Research Centre for SHARP Vision (RCSV), The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Seen Hang Chan None; Kai Yip Choi None; Henry Chan None
  • Footnotes
    Support  External Research Fund, PolyU (ZL21), the Innovation and Technology Fund, and the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2022, Vol.63, 256 – A0110. doi:
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    • Get Citation

      Seen Hang Chan, Kai Yip Choi, Henry Ho-lung Chan; Refractive error in Hong Kong preschool children and its association with near work. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2022;63(7):256 – A0110.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose : This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the refractive error in Hong Kong preschool children and its association with near work (including digital device usage) among these children.

Methods : A total of 336 preschool children aged between 3 and 7 years from 6 local kindergartens were examined. Eye examinations including habitual visual acuity, photorefraction, and ocular biometric measurements were carried out. Parental questionnaires on environmental and behavioural factors including near work habits were collected. Refractive error, expressed as spherical equivalent power (SE), and axial length (AL) were the main outcome measures. Only data on right eye was presented. SE and AL were compared among groups with different time spent on near work, including reading, drawing, doing homework and using digital devices, including mobile phones and handheld electronic devices.

Results : In total, 9.82% of the children had an SE of at least -0.50 D while 24.70% of the children had an SE more than +0.50 D. The overall mean SE was +0.21±0.73 D, ranging from -4.00 D to +2.50 D. The mean AL was 22.41±0.72 mm, ranging from 20.03 mm to 24.69 mm. SE was negatively correlated with age (r=-0.13, p=0.02) but no significant difference was found between gender (p=0.69). AL was positively correlated with age (r=0.40, p<0.001) but no significant difference was found between gender (p=0.23). AL was also significantly correlated with height after age adjustment (r=0.14, p=0.02), but not weight (p=0.90). Children with less than 2 hours of non-digital near work per day had significantly more hyperopic SE than those with 2 hours or more (+0.29±0.60 vs +0.11±0.84, p=0.03), but no significant difference in AL was found (p=0.09). Children using digital devices for less than 2 hours per day also had significantly shorter AL than those with 2 hours or more (22.32±0.68 vs 22.50±0.79, p=0.04), but no significant difference was found in SE (p=0.34).

Conclusions : Longer time spent on near work, including doing homework, reading books and drawing, and on digital devices including mobile phone and handheld electronic devices were associated with more myopic refractive power in Hong Kong preschool children.

This abstract was presented at the 2022 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Denver, CO, May 1-4, 2022, and virtually.

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