June 2022
Volume 63, Issue 7
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2022
Contrast Sensitivity with Take-Home SpotChecks Test in Healthy Adults
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Lien Vu
    University of Houston College of Optometry, Houston, Texas, United States
  • Han Cheng
    University of Houston College of Optometry, Houston, Texas, United States
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Lien Vu None; Han Cheng None
  • Footnotes
    Support  NEI T35EY007088, Precision Vision
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2022, Vol.63, 2256 – F0464. doi:
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      Lien Vu, Han Cheng; Contrast Sensitivity with Take-Home SpotChecks Test in Healthy Adults. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2022;63(7):2256 – F0464.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Purpose : SpotChecks is a newly designed disposable contrast sensitivity (CS) test that has a fine step change of 0.01 logCS and multiple versions. This study evaluated the repeatability of CS with take-home Spot-Checks, in-office Spot-Checks and near Pelli-Robson (PR) charts in healthy adults.

Methods : Thirty-nine healthy adults (age 22-84, mean 43±17, M:F = 21:18) participated in two office visits (7-66 days apart, mean 11±10 days) and an at-home component. Each visit included monocular high-contrast acuity and 12 different CS tests (6 SpotChecks and 6 PR charts in random orders) under the same lighting (luminance 110 cd/m2) all at near in the same eye with habitual correction. SpotChecks consists of 24 rows by 5 columns of 9 mm grey round spots on a white paper with contrast decreasing by 0.01 log units per spot (logCS ranges 0.90 to 2.09). At-home testing was self-administered SpotChecks once a day on six different days using the same eye. Subjects held the SpotChecks at a comfortable reading distance while marking spot positions with guessing encouraged. The third incorrectly marked spot determined threshold. PR charts were read at 40 cm and scored counting 0.05 for each letter read correctly then subtracting 0.15. Repeatability limit for two measurements was calculated as √2*1.96*Sw, Sw was within-subject standard deviation determined with one way analysis of variance. Limits of agreement (LOA) between single measurements of SpotChecks and PR were evaluated with Bland-Altman plots considering multiple observations per subject.

Results : Mean high contrast logMAR near acuity was -0.04±0.07, -0.03±0.08 for visit 1 and 2, respectively. Mean logCS from SpotChecks (1.90±0.08 visit 1, 1.92±0.09 visit 2, 1.93±0.09 home) was about 0.10 higher than that of PR (1.80±0.07 visit 1, 1.83±0.07 visit 2). Intravisit repeatability limit of logCS was similar between SpotChecks (0.13 visit 1, 0.14 visit 2) and PR (0.16 visit 1, 0.14 visit 2). Interday repeatability limit for take-home SpotChecks was 0.14, similar to that of intervisit SpotChecks (0.15) and PR (0.19). LOA between SpotChecks and PR was 0.10±0.19 for visit 1 and 0.09±0.20 for visit 2.

Conclusions : Take-home SpotChecks showed similar repeatability as in-office SpotChecks and PR charts. SpotChecks therefore has the potential to be used for self-monitoring of vision between office visits.

This abstract was presented at the 2022 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Denver, CO, May 1-4, 2022, and virtually.


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