June 2022
Volume 63, Issue 7
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2022
Towards spectral sensitivity curve for two-photon vision mechanism
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Marcin Marzejon
    Department of Physical Chemistry of Biological Systems, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
    Department of Metrology and Optoelectronics, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland
  • Agnieszka Zielinska
    Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Torun, Poland
  • Dorota Stachowiak
    Laser & Fiber Electronics Group, Faculty of Electronics, Photonics and Microsystems, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wroclaw, Poland
  • Grzegorz Sobon
    Laser & Fiber Electronics Group, Faculty of Electronics, Photonics and Microsystems, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wroclaw, Poland
  • Maciej Wojtkowski
    International Centre for Translational Eye Research, Warsaw, Poland
    Department of Physical Chemistry of Biological Systems, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
  • Katarzyna Komar
    International Centre for Translational Eye Research, Warsaw, Poland
    Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Torun, Poland
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Marcin Marzejon None; Agnieszka Zielinska None; Dorota Stachowiak None; Grzegorz Sobon None; Maciej Wojtkowski None; Katarzyna Komar U.S. Patent No. 10856734, Code P (Patent)
  • Footnotes
    Support  Narodowe Centrum Nauki, grant 2016/23/B/ST2/00752, Fundacja na rzecz Nauki Polskiej, grant MAB/2019/12, grant POIR.04.04.00-00- 3D47/16-00, grant First TEAM/2017-4/39
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2022, Vol.63, 2232 – F0440. doi:
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      Marcin Marzejon, Agnieszka Zielinska, Dorota Stachowiak, Grzegorz Sobon, Maciej Wojtkowski, Katarzyna Komar; Towards spectral sensitivity curve for two-photon vision mechanism. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2022;63(7):2232 – F0440.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose : The perceived brightness of different visible light sources can be compared with photometric units based on the standardized luminosity curves (300-780nm range). As reported previously (PNAS 111(50), pp. E5445-E5454 (2014)), near-infrared (NIR) radiation can cause isomerization of visual pigments by one- or two-photon absorption. The perceived color of the stimulus is red in the case of one-photon vision (1PV) or corresponds to half of the short-pulsed laser wavelength for the two-photon vision (2PV) mechanism. Since no luminosity curves for NIR range, comparison of such sources with photometric units is impossible. This study aims to provide an initial data for the 2PV spectral sensitivity curve (SSC).

Methods : We measured the scotopic visibility thresholds at fovea for 4 healthy dark-adapted subjects (2 males, 2 females; 27-43 y/o) between 750-1075nm. Up to 930nm, the total visibility threshold corresponds only to 1PV mechanism. For the 810-930nm, subjects distinguished 2 thresholds: the loss of half of the wavelength hue (2PV threshold) and total visibility (1PV) threshold. Starting from 950nm, only 2PV mechanism caused the visual sensation. The stimulus was a 0.5 deg diameter flickering circle projected in the retina by scanners. Two tunable pulsed light sources: OPO (750-990nm, Frep=76MHz, τp=204fs) and fiber laser (872-1075nm, Frep=51.5MHz, τp=205±9fs) were employed for psychophysical tests. The study complied with the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Collegium Medicum, NCU.

Results : The 1PV thresholds agreed with the previous works (JOSA 37(7), pp. 546-554 (1947)). Within the 810-930nm range, a relatively high standard deviation of the 2PV thresholds was observed, as finding the disappearance of half of the wavelength hue is a relatively difficult task. 2PV thresholds slightly differ for OPO and fiber laser, which is explainable by differences in pulse durations and repetition rates. For ~1040nm, the 2PV threshold values agreed to the previous authors’ results.

Conclusions : The 2PV sensitivity increased with wavelength of about 1 order of magnitude (810-1075nm range). Starting from 1010 nm, the shape of the obtained 2PV SSC differs from the wavelength-doubled scotopic luminosity curve for 1PV, corrected by the eye media transmittance. The maximum of 2PV SSC was not found. The results allowed us to obtain the first approximation of the 2PV SCC shape up to 1075nm.

This abstract was presented at the 2022 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Denver, CO, May 1-4, 2022, and virtually.

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