June 2022
Volume 63, Issue 7
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2022
Maternal sociodemographic risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Jason Clark Strawbridge
    Pediatrics, University of California Los Angeles David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, United States
  • Carla Janzen
    Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of California Los Angeles David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, United States
  • Alison Chu
    Pediatrics, University of California Los Angeles David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, United States
  • Irena Tsui
    Retina and Vitreous Diseases, Jules Stein Eye Institute, Los Angeles, California, United States
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Jason Strawbridge None; Carla Janzen None; Alison Chu None; Irena Tsui None
  • Footnotes
    Support  NIH K08-HD093874, Unrestricted grant from Research to Prevent Blindness
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2022, Vol.63, 4188 – F0248. doi:
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    • Get Citation

      Jason Clark Strawbridge, Carla Janzen, Alison Chu, Irena Tsui; Maternal sociodemographic risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2022;63(7):4188 – F0248.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose : Maternal medical comorbidities and pregnancy complications have been previously studied as risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The relationship between maternal sociodemographic characteristics and ROP risk remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to include maternal sociodemographic data with variables that have been previously found to be significant in assessing an infant’s risk for ROP.

Methods : We analyzed data from preterm infants born at a single institution who were referred for ROP screening between 2011 and 2021. Demographic and clinical data for each infant and mother were collected via review of the electronic medical record. Collected maternal data included age at delivery, insurance type, medical comorbidities, pregnancy complications, and smoking status in pregnancy. Self-reported race/ethnicity was recorded and included: Hispanic, black, white, Asian, and other. Collected infant data included gestational age (GA) and comorbidities. The primary outcome measure was the presence of any-stage ROP in either eye. The presence of ROP requiring treatment (type 1 ROP) was examined as a secondary outcome measure. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate each predictor for potential association with ROP.

Results : Of 324 preterm infants, 99 (30.6%) developed any-stage ROP and 33 developed treatment-requiring ROP (10.2%). The mean gestational age (GA) for the cohort was 28.8 weeks (range 22-38 weeks). Variables independently associated with increased risk of any-stage ROP included public insurance coverage (OR 7.3; 95% CI 2.6-20.8; p<0.001) and maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR 12.3; 95% CI 2.4-62.0; p=0.002). Maternal Hispanic ethnicity demonstrated an independent association with treatment-requiring ROP (OR 4.6; 95% CI 1.07-20.0; p = 0.040).

Conclusions : We observed a higher risk of treatment-requiring ROP for infants born to Hispanic mothers. In addition, public insurance coverage and maternal smoking during pregnancy were found to be independent modifiable risk factors for developing any-stage ROP. These findings suggest that both maternal comorbidities and sociodemographic factors may independently contribute to ROP risk. Future studies which examine additional socioeconomic determinants should be considered to identify other sources of health inequities and guide intervention efforts.

This abstract was presented at the 2022 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Denver, CO, May 1-4, 2022, and virtually.

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