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Maria de los Angeles Ramos Cadena, Gadi Wollstein, TingFang Lee, Jiyuan Hu, Fabio Lavinsky, Ian Conner, Joel S Schuman; Longitudinal changes in structural and functional measurements along the glaucoma severity spectrum. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2022;63(7):830.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Previously we described the longitudinal glaucoma relationship between structure and function using a broken stick analysis approach to identify the location where the rate of change accelerates or decelerates. In that analysis we used each measurement point as an independent point, aggregated all eyes from all visits, and treated longitudinal data as cross-sectional. Using improved statistical methodology, we accounted for repeated measurements and the use of data from both eyes in the longitudinal model. The purpose of this study is to identify the locations of tipping points and rates of change before and after them in structural and functional measurements.
Subjects with comprehensive ophthalmic examination and 5 or more visits with qualified visual fields (VF; Humphrey Field Analyzer; Zeiss, Dublin, CA) and OCT (Cirrus HD-OCT; Zeiss) with ONH and macular scans were enrolled. Segmented mixed models that account for repeated measurements were utilized to estimate the tipping points and the difference-in-slope. The number of tipping points was determined by identifying the optimal model using Bayesian information criterion.
216 eyes (164 open angle glaucoma, 45 glaucoma suspect, and 7 healthy eyes) of 145 subjects were analyzed (Table). Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and ganglion cell inner retinal layer (GCIPL) decreases and cup to disc ratio (CDR) increases since early stages of the disease were measured (Figure). Unlike previous cross-sectional reports, visual field mean deviation (MD) also decreases along with structural parameters since early stages of the disease. RNFL thinning stalls beyond MD<-15.63dB (Figure A) while GCIPL keeps decreasing (B), and CDR slowly increases (C) throughout the functional damage range. Direct comparison between the structural parameters shows that RNFL thinning decelerates in advanced disease compared to both GCIPL and CDR and GCIPL thinning decelerates compared to CDR.
Structural and functional measurements (RNFL, GCIPL, CDR and MD) are useful to evaluate glaucoma change from early stages of the disease. As glaucoma progresses and RNFL reaches its minimal measurable level GCIPL, CDR and MD remain useful to evaluate the disease. The clinical routine for following subjects with glaucoma should account for the ability to measure relevant parameters at various stages of disease.
This abstract was presented at the 2022 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Denver, CO, May 1-4, 2022, and virtually.
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