June 2022
Volume 63, Issue 7
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2022
Validation of visual field results of a new open-source virtual reality headset
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Zachary Heinzman
    Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa, United States
  • Karam Alawa
    Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa, United States
  • Iván Marín-Franch
    Computational Optometry, Atarfe, Spain
  • Andrew Turpin
    The University of Melbourne Department of Computing and Information Systems, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • Michael Wall
    Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa, United States
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Zachary Heinzman None; Karam Alawa None; Iván Marín-Franch None; Andrew Turpin None; Michael Wall None
  • Footnotes
    Support  VA Merit Review Grant (I01 RX-001821-01A1) and an unrestricted grant to the University of Iowa Department of Ophthalmology from Research to Prevent Blindness, New York, N.Y., USA
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2022, Vol.63, 1259 – A0399. doi:
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    • Get Citation

      Zachary Heinzman, Karam Alawa, Iván Marín-Franch, Andrew Turpin, Michael Wall; Validation of visual field results of a new open-source virtual reality headset. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2022;63(7):1259 – A0399.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose : Open-source virtual reality (VR) visual field testing offers a substantially more cost-effective and accessible alternative to visual field testing for underserved patients. In this comparative analysis, our aim was to assess the validity of visual field results from a novel open-source VR headset perimeter and test the hypotheses that visual field defect patterns and test-retest repeatability would be similar between the VR headset and Octopus 900 perimeter.

Methods : We tested 19 ocular healthy and 2 subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma five times on the VR headset and twice on the Octopus 900 perimeters using the Open Perimetry Interface perimetry platform with size V stimuli, P-Central 26 grid pattern, and Zippy Estimation by Sequential Testing (ZEST) algorithm. Previous data was also obtained from past studies using the Humphrey Field Analyzer. Additionally, test point locations were divided into three concentric zones for analysis based on distance from center fixation target, and test-retest repeatability for all results was analyzed with the repeatability coefficient (RC). Finally, visual field defect detection was qualitatively assessed through side-by-side comparisons of all fields.

Results : The RC—the expected absolute difference between 2 repeated tests with 95% probability—for the VR headset was 1.03 dB and was 1.16 dB for the Octopus 900. The RC for the HFA, using a different dataset but matched testing parameters was 1.25 dB. Within the central 10° of fixation, the VR headset and Octopus 900 perimeters had an RC of 0.86 dB and 1.31 dB, respectively. Peripherally, between 21.4°-28.2° from center fixation, the VR headset and Octopus 900 perimeter had an RC of 1.71 dB and 1.37 dB, respectively. Visual field defects were qualitatively similar between the VR headset and Octopus 900 perimeter for all glaucoma subjects tested.

Conclusions : It was demonstrated that the open-source VR headset is statistically as repeatable as the Octopus 900 perimeter, and it is capable of accurately mapping glaucomatous visual field defects for both large arcuate defects and smaller peripheral defects. The open-source VR headset is a substantially more cost-effective alternative than traditional perimeters with the potential to improve the accessibility of visual field testing in third-world countries and low-income communities.

This abstract was presented at the 2022 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Denver, CO, May 1-4, 2022, and virtually.

 

 

Variability in Perimetry (VIP) studies I and II used for retrospective analysis.

Variability in Perimetry (VIP) studies I and II used for retrospective analysis.

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