June 2022
Volume 63, Issue 7
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2022
High Myopia Induced by Bilateral Form Deprivation Is Highly Synchronized in Both Eyes of Chickens: a pilot study
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Byung Soo Kang
    Centre for Eye and Vision Research Limited, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    School of Optometry, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • Tsz Wing Leung
    School of Optometry, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • Sonal Aswin Vyas
    School of Optometry, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • Chea-Su Kee
    School of Optometry, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    Research Centre for SHARP Vision, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Byung Soo Kang None; Tsz Wing Leung None; Sonal Vyas None; Chea-Su Kee None
  • Footnotes
    Support  1) Departmental General Research Fund (P0036117), The Hong Kong Polytechnic University; 2) Project 1.5. Innovative and Technology Commission, Centre for Eye and Vision Research
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2022, Vol.63, 1105. doi:
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      Byung Soo Kang, Tsz Wing Leung, Sonal Aswin Vyas, Chea-Su Kee; High Myopia Induced by Bilateral Form Deprivation Is Highly Synchronized in Both Eyes of Chickens: a pilot study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2022;63(7):1105.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose : Form-deprivation and lens-induced myopia are two well-established models for experimental myopia research. Although both paradigms induce axial myopia, form-deprivation myopia is induced by the absence of clear vision and the axial elongation can progress continuously with large inter-subject variability (open-loop); whereas lens-induced myopia by imposing hyperopic defocus stops when eyes receive a clear focal image (closed-loop). This pilot study investigated whether the refractive development in both eyes was independent of each other under the bilateral form-deprivation condition.

Methods : At day 5 post-hatching (P5), White Leghorn chicks were randomly assigned to receive either unilateral (UFD, n=5) or bilateral form deprivation (BFD, n=5) by covering one (right eye) or both eyes with translucent diffusers. At the onset and over the 9-day treatment period, refractive state and ocular axial dimensions were measured longitudinally (P5, P7, P10, P12, and P14) using a modified Hartinger refractometer and a high-resolution A-scan ultrasonographer, respectively. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. All parameters were expressed as mean±SD.

Results : Both treatment and duration showed significant main effects on spherical-equivalent refractive error (SE) development (Treatment effect: F(3,16)= 4.19, p<0.05; Duration effect: F(1,19)= 36, p<0.001). Regardless of the treatment received, form-deprived eyes showed a rapid myopic shift in refractive state and vitreous chamber elongation (Fig 1A&B). Interestingly, the high myopia induced by BFD paradigm was highly synchronized in both eyes: the interocular difference in SE and vitreous chamber depth (VCD) were: P10: SE= 0.97±2.61D, VCD= −29.21±37.03μm; P12: SE= −0.08±1.84D, VCD= 7.78±83.87μm; P14: SE= 2.19±0.83D, VCD= 43.29±51.74μm (Fig 2A&B).

Conclusions : Refractive development in both eyes was synchronized under bilateral form deprivation in chickens. Further studies are warranted to understand the mechanism of inter-ocular synchronization and its potential role in form deprivation myopia.

This abstract was presented at the 2022 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Denver, CO, May 1-4, 2022, and virtually.

 

Fig 1. Longitudinal changes in (A) spherical equivalent and (B) vitreous chamber depth in chicks treated with UFD and BFD. N=5 per group. R, right eye; L, left eye.

Fig 1. Longitudinal changes in (A) spherical equivalent and (B) vitreous chamber depth in chicks treated with UFD and BFD. N=5 per group. R, right eye; L, left eye.

 

Fig 2. Interocular difference in (A) spherical equivalent and (B) vitreous chamber depth during UFD and BFD treatments.

Fig 2. Interocular difference in (A) spherical equivalent and (B) vitreous chamber depth during UFD and BFD treatments.

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