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Brett G. Jeffrey, Oliver J. Flynn, Laryssa A. Huryn, Maximilian Pfau, Catherine A. Cukras; Scotopic Contour Deformation Detection Reveals Early Rod Dysfunction in Age-Related Macular Degeneration With and Without Reticular Pseudodrusen. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2022;63(6):23. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.63.6.23.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
The purpose of this study was to investigate scotopic contour deformation detection (sCDD), and its structural determinants, in participants with intermediate age-related macular degeneration (iAMD) with or without reticular pseudodrusen (RPD).
Forty-one participants (aged 58–89 years), including 9 with iAMD and RPD, 16 with iAMD only, and 16 controls, underwent functional testing. The sCDD was evaluated with radial frequency arcs presented at 4 loci: ±4 degrees and 8 degrees vertical eccentricity. Scotopic thresholds and dark adaptation (DA) were measured at the same loci. Retinal layers of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volume scans were segmented. To establish the concurrent validity of the functional test, we evaluated the fraction of variability in sCDD thresholds explained by SD-OCT data.
The iAMD group had significantly worse sCDD thresholds compared with controls (8 degrees inferior retina: P = 0.004 and the 4 degrees loci: P < 0.02 for both). Elevated sCDD thresholds were observed in iAMD and RPD eyes at loci with normal scotopic thresholds; the opposite was rarely encountered. Elevated sCDD thresholds were also observed in iAMD eyes with normal DA. Elevated sCDD thresholds were associated with increased age and presence of late AMD in the fellow eye. The optimal machine learning model predicted 16% of variability (cross-validated R2) in sCDD thresholds at 8 degrees.
A novel scotopic contour deformation task can provide unique information about rod dysfunction in participants with iAMD and RPD not observed with structural and other functional assessments. Rod dysfunction observed with scotopic contour deformation testing was associated with factors linked to risk of AMD progression.
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