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Jesse J. Jung, Shen Yi Lim, Xavier Chan, Srinivas R. Sadda, Quan V. Hoang; Correlation of Diabetic Disease Severity to Degree of Quadrant Asymmetry in En Face OCTA Metrics. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2022;63(9):12. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.63.9.12.
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To determine if diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity affects quadrant asymmetry (QA) of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) metrics differentially.
Ninety eyes (60 patients) with no diabetes mellitus (DM) (n = 39) or varying levels of DR (n = 51) had OCTA images (3 × 3 mm, Cirrus5000) acquired five times and averaged. The vessel length density (VLD) and perfusion density (PD) of the superficial retinal layer (SRL) and deep retinal layer (DRL) were measured. QA was defined as the maximum minus minimum value among four parafoveal Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy quadrants, and compared with DR severity by linear regression including fixed effects for each individual and eye.
The mean patient age was 55.5 years (range, 24–88 years) and 60% were male. Comparing severe nonproliferative DR or proliferative DR versus no DM/DR eyes, QA was significantly higher for SRL VLD, and PD (+0.67 ± 0.16 and +0.014 ± 0.003; P < 0.001) and DRL VLD, and PD (+1.25 ± 0.16 and +0.032 ± 0.003; P < 0.001). When comparing mild or moderate nonproliferative DR versus no DM/DR, the DRL VLD, and PD were significantly higher (+0.51 ± 0.13 and +0.015 ± 0.003; P < 0.001). For every step increase in DR severity, there was a +0.20 QA for SRL VLD, +0.004 SRL PD, +0.33 DRL VLD and +0.009 DRL PD (P < 0.001). Regression analysis comparing intraquadrant effect on DR severity demonstrated that the superior quadrant was most affected for all OCTA metrics.
DR severity affects VLD and PD more asymmetrically across Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy quadrants with a linear increase in QA for each worsening level of DR. Individual intraeye metrics such as QA can accurately quantify DR severity without concerns for intereye variabilities that could affect the reproducibility and reliability of OCTA quantification.
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