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Liqin Jiang, Xinyu Liu, Lei Zhou, Joanna M. Fianza Busoy, Myo Thu Khine, Yee Shan Dan, Mengyuan Ke, Noel A. Brennan, Karen J. V. Catbagan, Leopold Schmetterer, Veluchamy A. Barathi, Quan V. Hoang; Choroidal Thickness in Early Postnatal Guinea Pigs Predicts Subsequent Naturally Occurring and Form-Deprivation Myopia. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2022;63(11):10. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.63.11.10.
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To identify choroidal characteristics associated with susceptibility to development of naturally occurring and experimentally induced myopia.
We compared choroidal properties between pigmented and albino guinea pig (GP) strains. Biometry, cycloplegic refractive error (RE), and eye wall sublayer thickness were measured from 171 GPs at postnatal day (P)6, 14, and 28. Forty-three P14 GPs underwent two-week monocular form-deprivation myopia (FDM). En face images of choroidal vasculature were obtained with a customized swept-source optical coherence tomography. Multivariate regression analyses were performed, with P28 RE as the outcome and P14 choroidal thickness (ChT) as the main predictor variable. Proteomic analysis was performed on choroidal tissue from P14 albino and pigmented GPs.
At P14, RE was correlated with thickness of the choroid (β = 0.06), sclera (β = 0.12), and retina (β = 0.27; all P < 0.001). P14 ChT was correlated with P28 RE both with (β = 0.06, P = 0.0007) and without FDM (β = 0.05, P = 0.008). Multivariate regression analysis, taking into account FDM (versus physiological growth) and strain, revealed that for every 10-µm greater ChT at P14, P28 RE was 0.50D more positive (P = 0.005, n = 70). En face images of choroidal sublayers showed that albino choroids were relatively underdeveloped, with frequent avascular regions. Consistent with this finding, proteomic analysis suggested abnormalities of the nitric oxide system in the albino GP choroid.
Current results are consistent with the notion that greater ChT could protect from or delay the onset of myopia, while lower ChT is associated with greater susceptibility to myopia development. The underlying mechanism could be related to dysfunction of the choroidal vascular system.
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