June 2023
Volume 64, Issue 8
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2023
Socioeconomic burden of advanced Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) in the United States of America (USA), Germany and Bulgaria
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Nabin Paudel
    Retina International, Dublin, Ireland
  • Laura Brady
    Retina International, Dublin, Ireland
  • Petia Stratieva
    Retina International, Dublin, Ireland
  • Avril Daly
    Retina International, Dublin, Ireland
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Nabin Paudel None; Laura Brady None; Petia Stratieva None; Avril Daly None
  • Footnotes
    Support  The study was funded by: F. Hoffmann La Roche, Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Apellis Pharmaceuticals Inc, Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson and Johnson, Novartis Pharma AG
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2023, Vol.64, 1746. doi:
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      Nabin Paudel, Laura Brady, Petia Stratieva, Avril Daly; Socioeconomic burden of advanced Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) in the United States of America (USA), Germany and Bulgaria. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2023;64(8):1746.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Purpose : The global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is expected to increase because of an ageing population, yet up-to-date data on the socioeconomic impact at a regional level is lacking. Understanding the burden on the economy, individuals affected, and their caregivers is essential to informing reimbursement of new interventions, diagnostic and therapeutic research, and health care provision. This study estimated the socioeconomic cost of illness and its impact on patients and caregivers affected by advanced AMD including Geographic Atrophy (GA) and wet Age-related Macular Degeneration (wAMD) in the USA, Bulgaria, and Germany.

Methods : Cost of illness economic modelling prevalence approach was used to estimate costs attributable to advanced AMD, under the following categories: direct medical, indirect and other economic societal costs including patient productivity, informal carer productivity, leisure time loss and reduced well-being. The data for the model was obtained via primary data collection among patients and caregivers on healthcare resource utilization, well-being, and productivity impacts. Additional data that was required for the model was sourced from available published literature.

Results : Estimated per-annum total costs attributable to advanced AMD were 449 million euros in Bulgaria, 7.6 billion euros in Germany and 43 billion euros in the USA. In Germany and Bulgaria, the costs incurred due to GA and wAMD contributed almost equally to the total cost, while in the USA the cost incurred due to wAMD contributed slightly higher (56%) than the cost incurred due to GA. Across all countries, the direct cost, i.e., the cost incurred due to direct medical expenses, was only a fraction (8–11%) of the total cost incurred. In Germany and Bulgaria, the biggest contributor to the total economic burden was reduced well-being (56% and 70% respectively) whereas, in the USA, the loss of productivity (55%) was the biggest contributor.

Conclusions : The burden and impact of AMD on patients and their caregivers in the USA, Germany and Bulgaria is evident when considering both economic costs and reduced well-being. Across all countries, reduced well-being and loss of productivity were the biggest contributors to the total economic burden. These findings provide an evidence base for the design of policy actions aimed at mitigating the disease burden.

This abstract was presented at the 2023 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in New Orleans, LA, April 23-27, 2023.


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