June 2023
Volume 64, Issue 8
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2023
Systemic and Ocular Effects of Prenatal Carotenoid Supplementation in Infants: The Lutein and Zeaxanthin in Pregnancy (L-ZIP) Trial
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Emmanuel Kofi Addo
    Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Utah Health John A Moran Eye Center, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
  • Susan Allman
    Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Utah Health John A Moran Eye Center, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
  • Ranganathan Arunkumar
    Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Utah Health John A Moran Eye Center, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
  • Joanna Gorka
    Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Utah Health John A Moran Eye Center, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
  • Mohsen Sharifzadeh
    Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Utah Health John A Moran Eye Center, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
  • Michael Varner
    Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Utah Health John A Moran Eye Center, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
    Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Utah Health Hospitals and Clinics, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
  • Paul S Bernstein
    Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Utah Health John A Moran Eye Center, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Emmanuel Kofi Addo None; Susan Allman None; Ranganathan Arunkumar None; Joanna Gorka None; Mohsen Sharifzadeh None; Michael Varner None; Paul Bernstein Tesseract, Code C (Consultant/Contractor), Kemin Health, Code F (Financial Support), For resonance Raman spectroscopic measurement of carotenoids in retina, skin, and other tissues, Code P (Patent)
  • Footnotes
    Support  NIH Grants EY029857 and EY014800, Research to Prevent Blindness
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2023, Vol.64, 3826. doi:
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      Emmanuel Kofi Addo, Susan Allman, Ranganathan Arunkumar, Joanna Gorka, Mohsen Sharifzadeh, Michael Varner, Paul S Bernstein; Systemic and Ocular Effects of Prenatal Carotenoid Supplementation in Infants: The Lutein and Zeaxanthin in Pregnancy (L-ZIP) Trial. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2023;64(8):3826.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose : The third trimester of pregnancy is when the mother transfers macular pigment carotenoids to her child for deposition in the developing macula. However, there is a dearth of evidence on how prenatal carotenoid supplementation impacts infants’ carotenoid status. Therefore, in this randomized clinical trial (NCT03750968), we sought to determine the effects of prenatal lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) supplementation on newborn infants’ ocular and systemic carotenoid status.

Methods : 47 pregnant women were randomized 1:1 to receive standard-of-care daily prenatal vitamins with or without 10 mg of L and 2 mg of Z for 6 to 8 months. The primary outcome assessed maternal carotenoid status in the serum, skin, and eye at the end of each trimester and postpartum with HPLC, resonance Raman spectroscopy, and dual-wavelength autofluorescence, respectively. The secondary outcome reported here measured infants’ carotenoid concentrations in the umbilical cord blood, skin, and eyes using similar techniques as above but optimized for infants. Student’s t-test compared infants’ carotenoid status in either experimental group, and a p-value of 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results : Infants whose mothers were in the Carotenoid Group (n = 19) had a significant 5-fold increase in cord blood serum L + Z concentrations, over a 3-fold increase in cord blood total carotenoids, and a 38% increase in skin carotenoid status compared to the Control Group (n = 18) (p < 0.0001 for all). Although not statistically significant, infants whose mothers were in the Carotenoid Group had a 20% increase in macular pigment compared to those in the Control Group (p = 0.242).

Conclusions : Prenatal carotenoid supplementation considerably enhances infants’ systemic and ocular carotenoid status during pregnancy and could provide health benefits to babies. Our results will be invaluable to design and power future large-scale studies on prenatal lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation.

This abstract was presented at the 2023 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in New Orleans, LA, April 23-27, 2023.

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