June 2023
Volume 64, Issue 8
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2023
ENRICHED ENVIRONMENT PROTECTS THE IMAGE-FORMING BUT NOT THE NON-IMAGE-FORMING VISUAL SYSTEM AGAINST EXPERIMENTAL GLAUCOMATOUS DAMAGE
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Ruth Estela Rosenstein
    Human Biochemistry Department, School of Medicine, UBA, CEFYBO, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • Damian Dorfman
    Human Biochemistry Department, School of Medicine, UBA, CEFYBO, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • Marcos L Aranda
    Human Biochemistry Department, School of Medicine, UBA, CEFYBO, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • Pablo H Sande
    Human Biochemistry Department, School of Medicine, UBA, CEFYBO, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • Maria F Gonzalez Fleitas
    Human Biochemistry Department, School of Medicine, UBA, CEFYBO, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Ruth Rosenstein None; Damian Dorfman None; Marcos Aranda None; Pablo Sande None; Maria Gonzalez Fleitas None
  • Footnotes
    Support  Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica [PICT 2731, PICT 1506]; The University of Buenos Aires [20020170100392BA]; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas [PIP 0630]
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2023, Vol.64, 4694. doi:
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    • Get Citation

      Ruth Estela Rosenstein, Damian Dorfman, Marcos L Aranda, Pablo H Sande, Maria F Gonzalez Fleitas; ENRICHED ENVIRONMENT PROTECTS THE IMAGE-FORMING BUT NOT THE NON-IMAGE-FORMING VISUAL SYSTEM AGAINST EXPERIMENTAL GLAUCOMATOUS DAMAGE. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2023;64(8):4694.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose : Enriched environment (EE) refers to conditions that facilitate/enhance sensory, cognitive, motor, and social stimulation relative to standard conditions (SE). Glaucoma is a blindness-causing disease that involves selective damage to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and optic nerve (ON) axons. A RGC subset expressing the photopigment melanopsin regulates non-image-forming visual system (NIFVS) functions, such as pupillary light reflex (PLR). We have developed an experimental rat model of glaucoma through intracameral injections of chondroitin sulphate (CS). Using this model, we investigated the ability of EE to protect the image-forming (IFVS) and the NIFVS system against glaucomatous damage.

Methods : Adult male Wistar rats housed in SE or EE, received weekly unilateral intracameral injections of CS for 10 weeks, whereas the contralateral eye was injected with vehicle. SE consisted in standard laboratory cages (2 rats/cage), while EE consisted in big cages (6 rats/cage), containing several food hoppers, wheels and different objects repositioned once/day and fully substituted once/week. Microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and axons at the proximal ON, as well as Brn3a(+) and melanopsin(+) RGC number were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (using anti-ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule, anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein, anti-myelin basic protein, anti-phosphorylated neurofilament, anti-Brn3a and anti-melanopsin antibodies, respectively). Visual evoked potentials (VEP), retinal anterograde transport (intravitreal injection of cholera toxin β-subunit), light-induced PLR, ocular pressure (TonoPen XL), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels (Western blot) were assessed.

Results : The exposure to EE did not affect CS-induced ocular hypertension but significantly increased retinal BDNF levels, and prevented ON microgliosis, astrocytosis, demyelination, axon loss, and the decrease in Brn3a(+) RGC number induced by experimental glaucoma (P<0.01 for all these parameters, by ANOVA followed by Tukey test). EE prevented the glaucoma-induced decrease in VEP amplitude (P<0.01) and retina-superior colliculus communication, but was ineffective on melanopsin(+) RGC number and PLR.

Conclusions : EE housing prevented experimental glaucoma-induced functional and structural alterations of the IFVS, but not of the NIFVS.

This abstract was presented at the 2023 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in New Orleans, LA, April 23-27, 2023.

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