June 2023
Volume 64, Issue 8
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2023
Feasibility of eye tracking to control a prototype for presbyopia correction with focus tunable lenses
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Rajat Agarwala
    Institute for Ophthalmic Research, Eberhard Karls Universitat Tubingen, Tubingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • Martin Dechant
    Institute for Ophthalmic Research, Eberhard Karls Universitat Tubingen, Tubingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    Carl Zeiss Vision GmbH, Aalen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • Yannick Sauer
    Institute for Ophthalmic Research, Eberhard Karls Universitat Tubingen, Tubingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • Siegfried Wahl
    Institute for Ophthalmic Research, Eberhard Karls Universitat Tubingen, Tubingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    Carl Zeiss Vision GmbH, Aalen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Rajat Agarwala None; Martin Dechant Carl Zeiss Vision International GmbH, Code E (Employment); Yannick Sauer None; Siegfried Wahl Carl Zeiss Vision International GmbH, Code E (Employment)
  • Footnotes
    Support  Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) SFB 1233, Robust Vision:Inference Principles and Neural Mechanisms, TP TRA, Project number: 276693517; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and Open Access Publishing Fund of the University of Tuebingen;
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2023, Vol.64, 2503. doi:
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    • Get Citation

      Rajat Agarwala, Martin Dechant, Yannick Sauer, Siegfried Wahl; Feasibility of eye tracking to control a prototype for presbyopia correction with focus tunable lenses. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2023;64(8):2503.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose : Presbyopia is a refractive error that elder humans encounter causing blurry near vision and focus tunable lenses have been proposed as a correction. However, an efficient way to determine the target focal distance is still under discussion. We propose a prototype combining an eye tracker (Pupil Core, Berlin, Germany) and a LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) camera (L515, Intel Corporation Inc, USA) to determine the target focal distance of tunable lenses (EL-35-45, Optotune AG, Switzerland). In this feasibility study, we analyze the accuracy and latency of our feedback system.

Methods : Six healthy subjects (mean age: 27 ± 2 years; spherical refractive error: -1.5 ± 0.5 D) were asked to follow a target between three displays placed at different distances (35 cm, 70 cm, 100 cm from the subject to the display) while wearing our prototype. Fiducial markers were placed on each display to detect a match between the user's gaze and the display on which stimulus was displayed. After the initial eye tracker calibration, the stimulus was presented on the different screens in random order. Each target presentation took 3 seconds, followed by one second of blank screens. In total, per subject, we recorded 90 samples (30 per trial, 3 repetitions). The distance of the gaze target was calculated from the point cloud of the LIDAR data, and its reciprocal was used for tuning the dioptric power of the tunable lens.

Results : Based on the calibration data, we found that the mean accuracy and precision of the eye tracker of the prototype were 1.00 ± 0.14 and 0.10 ± 0.02 degrees, respectively. The detected gaze on surface data showed an individual delay between stimulus onset and the subject's gaze, matched with the location of the stimulus display. The dioptric power was calculated from the LIDAR point cloud data with a mean latency of 0.042 ± 0.029 seconds.

Conclusions : The results depict a high accuracy of the eye tracker in the prototype and low latency for the computation of the dioptric power for the focus tunable lenses using LIDAR. Thus, it can be concluded that our feedback system with the proposed combination of an eye tracker and a LIDAR camera is feasible for presbyopia correction with focus tunable lenses.

This abstract was presented at the 2023 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in New Orleans, LA, April 23-27, 2023.

 

Experimental setup (A) Prototype with tunable lenses and eye tracking cameras along with LIDAR camera for distance estimation and as a world camera for gaze tracking. (B) The experimental setup with three screens placed at distances, 35 cm. 70cm and 100 cm.

Experimental setup (A) Prototype with tunable lenses and eye tracking cameras along with LIDAR camera for distance estimation and as a world camera for gaze tracking. (B) The experimental setup with three screens placed at distances, 35 cm. 70cm and 100 cm.

 

Stimulus timing and gaze on surface detection for subject 2. The stimulus on surface numbers 0, 1 and 2 represent laptop, monitor and retina display respectively.

Stimulus timing and gaze on surface detection for subject 2. The stimulus on surface numbers 0, 1 and 2 represent laptop, monitor and retina display respectively.

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