June 2023
Volume 64, Issue 8
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2023
A Decennial Retrospective Study of Ocular Trauma in the USA: Trends, Causes, Demographics, and High-Risk Injuries
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Julia Nguyen
    Rutgers New Jersey Medical School Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Newark, New Jersey, United States
  • Marco A Zarbin
    Rutgers New Jersey Medical School Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Newark, New Jersey, United States
  • Neelakshi Bhagat
    Rutgers New Jersey Medical School Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Newark, New Jersey, United States
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Julia Nguyen None; Marco Zarbin None; Neelakshi Bhagat None
  • Footnotes
    Support  None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2023, Vol.64, 1181. doi:
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      Julia Nguyen, Marco A Zarbin, Neelakshi Bhagat; A Decennial Retrospective Study of Ocular Trauma in the USA: Trends, Causes, Demographics, and High-Risk Injuries. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2023;64(8):1181.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose : We characterized the ten-year retrospective data of ocular trauma (OT) in the U.S. and evaluated the trends, leading causes, high-risk injuries, and at-risk groups.

Methods : Ocular injuries from the National Trauma Data Bank 2007-2016 were identified using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Rev, Clinical Modification codes. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS Release 3.8 with significance level of 0.05.

Results : 22,716,943 cases were included. 732,826 (3.23%) sustained OT. The most common OT were closed fractures of facial bones (27.6%) and of orbital floor (20.6%). The mean (SD) age was 41.82 (21.96), range 1–89. The cases were predominantly male (71.2%) and 65.7% were white. Injury Severity Score (ISS) was severe/very severe for 35.4%, while 15.5% was classified as TBI according to the Glasgow Coma Scale. Blunt injuries comprised 85.1%. Assault vs self-inflicted were 21.9% vs 1.7%, respectively. Injury locations Street to Home ratio is 41:22. Alcohol and drugs were involved in 23.0% and 16.7% of injuries, respectively. Mean (SD) length of hospital stay was 6.57 (10.47) days. 64.3% were discharged home while 8.5% needed long term rehab, and 1.56% expired (Table 1).
We observed a significant increasing trend of OT risk with an average of +1% a year for this study period (p < 0.0001) (Figure 1). Leading causes of OT by frequency were 36.6% motor vehicle related (MV), 3.71% firearms (FA), 2.17% pedal cycling (PC), and 1.66% sports (S). FA and MV also resulted in the highest ISS, higher-than-average hospital stay, and highest expiration rate (p<0.0001). Injuries with the highest intrinsic risk of OT involved animal bites (AB), explosions (EX), chemicals (CH), and PC (p< 0.001).
When considering all injuries, children, male, and Black patients carried the highest risk of OT. Children had the highest risk of AB OT while adolescents of sport OT (p<0.0001). Black patients had three times higher risk of FA OT and four times higher risk of assault OT (p<0.0001). OT is a significant predictor of TBI (p<0.0001).

Conclusions : OT had an increasing trend and needs to be monitored. The leading causes involved MV, FA, PC, and S while injuries with the highest risk of OT involved AB, EX, CH, and PC. Children, male, and Black patients were at higher overall risks.

This abstract was presented at the 2023 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in New Orleans, LA, April 23-27, 2023.

 

Table 1. Patient Characteristics

Table 1. Patient Characteristics

 

Figure 1. Significant increasing trend in OT from 2007-2016 (p<0.0001)

Figure 1. Significant increasing trend in OT from 2007-2016 (p<0.0001)

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