June 2023
Volume 64, Issue 8
Open Access
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2023
Adaptable Fixation Display Attachment for Ophthalmic Devices
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Raphael Francis Aguas
    Biomedical Engineering, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, United States
  • Andrew W Browne
    Ophthalmology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, United States
    Biomedical Engineering, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, United States
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Raphael Francis Aguas None; Andrew Browne None
  • Footnotes
    Support  None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2023, Vol.64, 2476. doi:
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      Raphael Francis Aguas, Andrew W Browne; Adaptable Fixation Display Attachment for Ophthalmic Devices. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2023;64(8):2476.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose : An independent fixation mechanism that can be universally implemented into ophthalmic imaging devices to guide patient eye movement during testing has yet to be developed. We investigated the feasibility of a programmed display device attachment as an effective fixation target wherein target customizations are readily adjusted by user input.

Methods : A Raspberry Pi Pico microcontroller was used to drive a thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD). A graphical user interface (GUI) on a computer prompts the user to customize the target shape, size, and color. The target’s x-y position on the TFT-LCD is controlled by clicking the mouse within the GUI. The TFT-LCD and GUI were programmed in Python and run on Thonny IDE. The TFT-LCD was placed in a 3D printed enclosure with an achromatic lens to neutralize near accommodation and offer a wide field of view for eye movement guidance using a fixation target. Initial feasibility was assessed by placing the fixation device on a subject’s left eye and noting the location of the right eye’s pupil as a fixation target position was changed.

Results : A schematic of the developed fixation device attachment along with the GUI is illustrated in Figure 1. Results of initial feasibility testing qualitatively demonstrated preliminary control of gaze fixation as the subject followed the target on the screen. Shown in Figure 2 are sample images of changing pupil position corresponding with target location.

Conclusions : An effective fixation display offering target customization and interoperability with existing devices is feasible using low-cost electronics. Upcoming studies will improve the range of eye movement and quantitatively assess pupil movement and position in response to differing fixation target parameters using a pupillometer. A successful fixation display attachment will be beneficial not only to existing ophthalmic imaging technologies but also developing benchtop systems.

This abstract was presented at the 2023 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in New Orleans, LA, April 23-27, 2023.

 

Figure 1: (A) Exploded view of fixation device (B) Graphical user interface (GUI)

Figure 1: (A) Exploded view of fixation device (B) Graphical user interface (GUI)

 

Figure 2: Preliminary results: (A) Pupil location of right eye (B) Subject’s left eye view of fixation target

Figure 2: Preliminary results: (A) Pupil location of right eye (B) Subject’s left eye view of fixation target

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