June 2023
Volume 64, Issue 9
Open Access
ARVO Imaging in the Eye Conference Abstract  |   June 2023
Real time Doppler holography of blood flow in the anterior segment of the eye
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Michael Atlan
    Langevin Institute, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, Île-de-France, France
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships   Michael Atlan, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2023, Vol.64, PP0024. doi:
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      Michael Atlan; Real time Doppler holography of blood flow in the anterior segment of the eye. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2023;64(9):PP0024.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose : Various techniques exist for imaging anterior segment blood vessels, but they all have their limitations. Currently, the most advanced method of angiography involves injecting fluorescent dyes, which is invasive and may be difficult to perform and quantify. OCT angiography has a long acquisition time, low resolution, and is unable to reveal blood flow fluctuations. In this study, we present new imaging results of the anterior segment of the eye with real time Doppler holography to explore its potential clinical uses.

Methods : We used a modified holographic retinal blood flow imaging instrument that relies on diffuse laser light, along with ocular elements and lenses for cross-polarized illumination and collection. The anterior segment of the eye was imaged with different lateral resolutions, from ~10 pixel pitch to ~3 microns. The real time calculation of Doppler images was performed from an uninterrupted stream of 1024 x 768 pixel 12-bit interferograms recorded at 4000 frames per second by an Ametek Phantom S710 streaming camera. The image rendering was carried out by Fresnel transformation of each interference frame. Doppler optical fluctuations of blood flow were revealed by local principal component analysis filtering of batches of 32 consecutive images, resulting in a temporal resolution of 125 rendered frames per second. An 8-frame moving average filter was used to attenuate spurious signal contributions. All calculations were performed by the holovibes digital holography software.

Results : We successfully imaged blood flow in the arteries and veins of the conjunctiva, episclera, and iris in control patients with eye colors ranging from light blue to brown. We were able to identify several anatomical landmarks, including ciliary arteries. Arterial pulse waves and venous flow were observed in vessels of various sizes, depending on the lateral field of view and the range of selected principal components.

Conclusions : In addition to its ability to image retinal and choroidal blood flow, near-infrared Doppler holography can also visualize blood flow in the vasculature of the anterior segment of the eye in real time. It can become complementary to state-of-the art angiography and anterior segment OCTA techniques for this purpose.

This abstract was presented at the 2023 ARVO Imaging in the Eye Conference, held in New Orleans, LA, April 21-22, 2023.

 

Doppler holographic images of the anterior segment of a blue-eyed patient. A low number of principal components reveals radial iris, scleral, episcleral and conjunctival blood vessels.

Doppler holographic images of the anterior segment of a blue-eyed patient. A low number of principal components reveals radial iris, scleral, episcleral and conjunctival blood vessels.

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